STATE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PRESERVE "BATTLE OF POLTAVA"
The famous Battle of Poltava, which took place on June 27th, 1709, is known probably to everyone.It was a fateful battle, which is to some extent determined the fate of not only Russia, but also had a significant impact on the history of Europe. According to the famous Swedish historian Peter Englund from the date of the Battle of Poltava "ended the period of Swedish rule, Russia has started to get rid of their old enemy, the powerful neighbor, which closed access to the Baltic Sea. At the same time, the battle of Poltava was a colossal disaster not only for Sweden but also for Europe; it broke the old balance of power, - the power after Poltava moves from Sweden to Russia, which grows stronger and becomes a strong state."
And the memory of this great military battle of two powerful states is stored not only in books and in the hearts of many people, but also in the National Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle", which is located within the beautiful Ukrainian city-hero - Poltava, where, in fact and took the battle itself. As you know, the Battle of Poltava significantly changed the course of history and influenced the fate of many European countries. It is for this reason that every year in reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world.
Museum "Field of the great Poltava battle" was created on the initiative of renowned historian and teacher of history in Poltava cadet corps IVAN Pavlovsky in 1909. The Grand opening of the reserve was dedicated to the 200th anniversary of these military battles. During the Civil War Museum has experienced several robberies, so for a while its activity was discontinued. It was only in September 1950, the museum reopened its doors to visitors in a former military hospital for veterans of the Russian-Turkish war, which took place in the 70-ies of the XIX century. Since then, the collection of exhibits of the Museum of the "Field of the Battle of Poltava" significantly expanded with new exhibits and collections, which were kindly forwarded Poltava Regional Museum, Kiev historical and art museum, Artillery Museum in Leningrad, Hermitage.
In 1981, the Museum, a complex of monuments that are associated with the Battle of Poltava and all nearby areas have been renamed and merged into the State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle", which has a huge protected area. The total area of ??historical and cultural reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" is 771.5 hectares. This includes the area Holy cross monastery, Trams - Ribsy - Ivonivtsi - Takhtaulovo - Osmachka - Bugs - Semenovka - Petrovka - Akovtsy.
Significant historical events on its territory occurred before and after the Battle of Poltava. On the territory of the reserve were once located more than 30 burial mounds, whose existence dates back to the historians in the I millennium BC and I millennium AD, and 4 of the ancient settlement.In 1399 at the same location took place the battle between the warriors of the Great Lithuanian Prince Vitovt and Tatar hordes of Khan Temir-Kallua and Yedigei. Later, a battle took place here hetman units I.Vygovskogo with Poltava colonel M.Pushkarem. In Akovtsy that are located in the North-Eastern part of the field of the great Poltava battle, 1871 every summer came the famous scientist-surgeon, who became one of the founders of the abdominal cavity surgery in Russia, Nikolai Vasilievich Sklifosovsky. Since 1900, he began to live and work here permanently. Homestead, where lived the great scientist, is often called the "Switzerland of Poltava." A few interesting facts and events related to the field of Poltava battle are the first is the creation of its territory in 1884, Poltava experimental field, the second is connected with the creation of the Poltava Agricultural Experiment Station, which successfully worked famous Ukrainian and Russian scientists MI Vavilov, A.E.Zaykevich, VI Vernadsky and many others.
1962 in the life of the National Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" was marked by the creation of the park next to the Akovtsy, in the north-eastern part of the field.To date, this arboretum is a landmark landscape art of national importance, a total area of ??140 hectares. It grows more than 150 different species of shrubs and trees. Lilac Grove, Arboretum, four picturesque ponds and the unique atmosphere of the park instantly make you forget about reality, relax and enjoy the magical charm of this nature.
State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" today , this is one of the most important cultural centers of scientific and methodical in studying the history of Ukraine during the XVII-XVIII centuries in the context of European history.Since 1994, the Museum of the "Field of Poltava Battle" works exhibition "Cossack state." Interest in this reserve is shown not only the media, the public and researchers of our country, but also the representatives of Sweden, Russia and many other countries.
Of all the historical and cultural reserves of the country the only Ukrainian reserve, which is listed in the IAMAM (International Organization of military history museums in the world), which operates under the auspices of UNESCO, is the National Reserve "Poltava battle field."
On the territory of the historical and cultural reserve complex there are many other attractions that are inextricably linked to the events of the Battle of Poltava 1709:
- Ten granite monument on the site of the old redoubts (1939),
- Mass grave of Russian soldiers who died, was buried in 1345 in which a man (1894),
- Monument to the Fallen of the Swedes (1909)
- Monument to the fallen Russians from the Swedes (1909)
- Monument, established on the site of the crossing of the Russian army over Vorskla (1959)
- Monument to Peter I, installed in front of the Museum of the "Field of Poltava Battle" (1915)
- Monument to the defenders of the fortress of Poltava and the commandant of the AS Kelin (1909.)
- A memorial sign, which is set on the site of the command post of Emperor Peter I (1973)
- Church of the Savior, which was built in 1705-1706 years. and reconstructed in 1845,
- Monument of Fame (1811)
- Monument was mounted on the resting place of Emperor Peter I (1849),
- Monument to the Fallen Ukrainian Cossacks (1994)
- Sampson church, which was built in the period 1852-156. and reconstructed in 1895,
- Holy cross monasterywas built in 1650 It is also the headquarters of Charles XII.
The first of the above attractions reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" attracts the attention of tourists. They are set in a nature reserve just in those places where by order of Emperor Peter I had built a line of redoubts. These obelisks show just how talented military leader was Peter I, as these redoubts were not just a huge surprise for the Swedes, but also the best position of the Russian troops. Redoubts of the emperor became a new stage in the history of martial arts in the world.
Visit reserve "Field of Poltava Battle"- it means to go for a unique experience and new knowledge in the field of world history and the history of Ukraine. As already mentioned, a huge area of ??the reserve, so that it’s impossible to get around in a day. In such a short period of time can only be considered in more detail the Museum itself "Field of Poltava Battle", which features more than 8,000 exhibits. All items from the museum collection in some way related to the events of this great battle, and the entire 21-year-old Northern War in general. In the maelstrom of war events this protracted war were drawn by the Russian Empire Ukraine, Poland, Denmark, and Turkey. In nine modern exhibition halls of the museum are the priceless relics of that historical period: firearms and knives, coins, medals, icons, portraits, engravings, paintings, military uniforms, battle flags, old books, some personal belongings of Peter I and representatives of Russian nobility, letters, cards and many other documents of the second half of the XVIII century. The largest area is the fairest hall of the Museum diorama that illustrates the last minutes of the Battle of Poltava.
Another of the main attractions, which is located on the territory of the State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle», is Sampson church. This church was built in the middle of the XIX century. The interior of the church of St. Sampson decorated with unique paintings, which is considered highly artistic examples of monumental art. With this painting, Sampson church is considered the world's only chapel, which was built in the style of Ukrainian modernism.
Number of sites on the territory of the State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Field of Poltava Battle" huge, they can be a very long story. But no story, no description or photos cannot convey to you the fullness of the unique atmosphere that reigns in the reserve. Therefore it is better to see it all first hand and experience the magnificence of it all his soul.