NATIONAL HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESERVE "OLIVIA" IN THE VILLAGE PARUTINO
At a distance of 40 km from the city of Nikolayev, in the village of Parutino Ochakov district is one of the oldest attractions of Ukraine,it is a historical and archaeological reserve "Olivia," which in 2002 according to the Decree of the President of Ukraine has received national status. This reserve has been for many decades, attracting many tourists, travelers, historians, archaeologists and people who are not indifferent to the past.
Many years ago, to be precise, more than 2,500 years ago, in high hilly banks of the Bug estuary, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the southern part of the future of the country is Ukraine, began to appear ancient towns and rural settlements. One of the biggest, most famous and most majestic ancient cities that existed on the territory of present-day Ukraine was Olvia.
Olbia(the Greek name of Olbia) was a huge center of the policy covering the entire territory of the Lower Bug. It was not just a city; it was a strong and prosperous nation, which existed for over 1,000 years, from the VI century BC to IV century BC. According to scientists, the continued existence of such policies on the Southern Black Sea Coast has had an enormous influence on the culture and history of the region. Olivia, as a giant and powerful at the time the state, most of all will be displayed in the future socio-economic, political and cultural development of the local tribes.
In the ancient Greek translation of "Olvia" means "happy."And it was the state, which has long experienced happy times. But we will tell you later. Olvia had another name, it is often called the State Borisfen is the ancient Greek name of the Dnieper River.
According to historians, the state of Olbia was founded came from the ancient Greek city of Miletus, who settled in these places is about 650 BC. Most likely, they loved this area, which is ideal for a base here of the city: land with a small hilly on the banks of the estuary, which is on both sides, the west and north, was surrounded by deep gullies - so called natural fortifications. The eastern side of the territory of "defending" water barrier Hipanis is the ancient name of the river Southern Bug.
Olviasoon became a powerful and well-known city-state. An important factor for the economic development of the city was the geographical location and a vast area of fertile land. The main types of farming in Olbia steel fishing, viticulture, animal husbandry and agriculture. Shortly after the founding of the city, here began to actively develop various kinds of handicrafts: ceramic, pottery, metal, stone processing, woodworking, jewelry and many other crafts that provide services to the urban market and the neighboring Scythian tribes who belonged to the close trade relations with Olbia. From these same tribes Olbia received in return grain, wool, livestock and slaves, who sold on the labor markets of the metropolis. This fact indicates that the slave form of government in Olbia. Of the Greek State to the territory of Olbia imported olive oil, wine, metal and ceramic products, luxury goods and art.
In the heyday of Olbia released its coins: silver, copper, and sometimes gold. The supreme power of the state was under the control of the People's Assembly and the elected council, and the executive power was exercised by boards of elected officials (strategists, Archons, and many others), which changes annually.
Olbia was divided into two parts: Upper and Lower Town. In the upper part of the city has a sales area is Agora, which was also the center of the city. Also here was and temenos is a sacred site with altars and temples. In the lower part were focused seaport and artisan quarters. The whole city was surrounded by a defensive wall of stone with supervisory towers to defend against the attacks of enemies. In the southern part was installed additional strengthening is the citadel. Around the main town had a large number of rural settlements.
In the period of strong economic development of Olbia, at the same time passed and the period of social and cultural growth. Here were their philosophers (Borysthenes, Bion, Posidonius, and Spheres), musicians, poets, scientists, who have developed their own alphabet and calendar. In Olbia, is known to have been visited by Herodotus is the "father of history." While in Olbia was very highly developed art, which is confirmed by archaeologists, found ceramics and jewelry, very beautiful architectural structures, amazing statues. In the town center theater was built that is mentioned several times in the inscriptions. Residents Olbia led an active lifestyle : doing sports, organized various competitions - melee fighting, archery, running, javelin throwing and a disk.
But the more popular and prosperous became the city-state, the more he attracted envy and enemies. Many times over the Olbia clouds are gathering and its defensive walls approached the warlike tribes. In 331 BC, Olbia to repel an attack known commander of Alexander the Great - Zopiriona. In the II-I centuries BC, while Olvia remained under the control of the militant Scythian state, then Mithridates is Pontic king. In the I century BC, the state is affected by the invasion is ready, and then return to its former glory, wealth and prosperity of Olbia has failed. It was rebuilt, but not already occupied the place that earlier in international trade and relations with neighboring states. In the I-II century AD, located on the territory of Olbia Roman garrison, and at the beginning of the next century, it was incorporated in the Lower Moesia is Roman province.
In addition to the above events in the history of the termination of the state took place one more fact is the general crisis of the slave system.Therefore, in the beginning of the IV century. BC, like many other states in the South Black Sea coast, Olbia ceased to exist. But, in spite of the other centers of culture ancient (Chersonesos (Sevastopol in the Crimea), Thira (Belgorod-Dniester in the Odessa region) and Pantikapaion (Kerch in the Crimea)), on the territory of which the life and continued up to the present time, Olbia, unfortunately, did not survive his era. For many centuries, the forgotten city, more and more destroyed by time. Part of the city was demolished by the Turks in order to build Ochakov fortress, which is located not far from here, and the local population, which was built of stone village Parutino Olbia.
Only at the end of the XVIII century scientists have discovered ruins of Olbia, after the land became part of the Russian Empire after the Russian-Turkish war. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, there began to be carried out systematic excavations, materials of which are found in many museums of Ukraine, Russia (for example, in the Hermitage), the countries of Western Europe and America.
To date, the remains of this city-state is a national historical and archaeological reserve "Olvia" (status assigned to the reserve in 2002), which covers an area of 270 hectares. According to many statements of historians and archaeologists, it is only 1/80 of the former Olbia. Everything else they have yet to "dig up and get it" and the distant mists of time. In the reserve also includes 23.6 hectares and Berezan Island, on which was located the oldest ancient settlement of the Northern Black Sea coast, founded back in the VII century BC.
On the territory of the reserve "Olvia" there is one very extraordinary forty-meter pit, which is called "the Well of happiness". Tourists who come here, stick to the old traditions and cast into the well of a coin, make this desire. Here you can also see the remains of one of the architectural attractions of the ancient city - temple of Apollo, worshipped by the locals.
In general, the National Historical and Archaeological Reserve "Olivia" can fully enjoy not only stunning nature, but also incredibly beautiful ancient remains of the ancient city and its fascinating history.
How to get to Olbia
The easiest route to Parutino is direct routes "Nikolayev - Parutino." Also through this village bus route goes from Nikolayev to Ochakov. Importantly, we must remember that these taxis are not sent from the Central Bus Station, and with the "suburban".
To go back from Olbia, we recommend pre-check with the bus drivers or the locals when sent to the last bus in the direction of Nikolaev. Otherwise, you will be very difficult to return home.