THE JOURNEY OF ONE DAY. MUSEUM-ESTATE OF NIKOLAI VASILIEVICH GOGOL
Poltava region, its history, sights and culture are inextricably linked with the work of the Great Ukrainian writer Nikolai Gogol.In honour of his in his native village Gogolevo (its present name, previously - Vasilevka) Shishatskiy district, Poltava region is a Museum-reserve. About it further and will be discussed!
Museum-estate of Nikolai Gogolis one of the most interesting museums of Poltava, the estate, which passed the childhood and youth of the writer, and where he always loved to return to visit his sisters and mother. Of course, that all the trends of the XXI century is not passed by the village Gogolevo, and now it is not the village, which was during the life of Gogol. But there is in Gogolevo one manor, which clearly displays the Ukrainian folk life times of Nikolai Gogol.
In work “Sketches and paintings of Ruthenia" famous Russian geographer A. N. Ovsyannikov gave a very good description of Vasilevka (Yanovschyna) childhood of the writer: "At the entrance to the village on one side stretches a huge, dense garden, the pond, which offers the bridge, as if cutting it into two parts. On the other hand, opens a wide green pasture on one side of which stands a small Church, lined with trees and dazzling, radiant green roof. Opposite the Church across the street was the estate of Goldeneyes, in the center of which stood a one-story house with wooden beams and red metal roof. On the estate there were many constructions of economic values, stable, carriage house, barn and other buildings...»
In order now to see this beautiful landscape you have to go to the village Gogolevo by Shishak, and not from Poltava. But there is a small change: the bridge is now turned into a dam that separates the pond; there is the Church of the Nativity of the virgin and the local cemetery that surrounded the Church, and many commercial extensions Gogol's estate. Since the times of the writer in its original form has been preserved only parochial school. And everything else in the mansion looks the same as described Ovsyannikov.
When the visitors of the Museum-estate of Gogol suited to the gates of the estate, the first thing that catches their eye is the stunning beauty of the Park and garden. The Park crosses Central Avenue, which for the convenience of visitors to the Museum-estate of stone tiles. Further, in the depths of this alley, you can see the small size of the building, which houses the Museum of Nikolai Gogol. At any time, the estate looks simply irresistible, especially in the warm season, when the front of the house of the writer shines with colorful paints a huge flowerbed with a large number of different types of flowers. The riot of colors of a flower bed adds to the beauty of the Park and gardens, and, of course, as the old family house Gogolevo. The house has a wooden porch, log columns, and he always whitewashed white. All of this painting in the Museum-estate of Nikolai Gogol suggests a lyrical mood and makes every visitor an unforgettable experience. Right from home writer is a small wooden wing, which is built in the old Ukrainian style, and to the left of it - well-"crane" and the barn.
Now let's talk a little history
In the village Gogolevo (Shishatskiy district, Poltava region), the estate of the family of Goldeneyes-Yanovsky appeared at the end of the XVIII century on a farm Kupchinsky. This farm is in 1781, four years after the ceremony, received the grandmother of Nikolai Gogol Tatyana Semenovna Lizogub as a wedding dowry. In the early nineteenth century the entire farm Kupchinsky inherited parents Nikolai Gogol. They renamed the farm, gave him a new name - Vasilevka (in honor of the father of the writer Vasily Borisov). Vasily Gogol rebuilt the old house, built in the Gothic taste." A new house was built in the classical style. Near the house was built the Church of the Nativity of the virgin, a distillery, a brick factory, a water mill, was laid out Park and constructed ponds.
On the 20th of March, 1809 in Great Sorochintsy, in the house known at the time of the doctor M. J. of Trohimovich, Maria Ivanovna Gogol-Yanovsky gave birth to a son Nicholas. The baby was baptized in the Holy Transfiguration Church in Great Sorochintsy, and six months after the birth of Mary, together with a newborn son returned to his native Vasilevka, which were carefree years of childhood and youth of the future writer of the world level.
Many times Nikolai Gogol and his parents traveled in Dykanka, Big Obuhov, and Kibincy. Later began the process of training the boy. In 1818-1819, Nikolai Vasilievich studied at the Poltava district (district) school. Next, after the death of the youngest son, in 1820 Vasily Gogol sent Nicholas to a private school to the teacher of the Latin language in Poltava gymnasium Gabriel Maksimovich Sorochinsky. And from 1821 to 1828 Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol was educated at the high school of higher Sciences. And throughout the entire study period each summer, Nicholas spent in Vasilevka, the estate of his father.
And even after Nikolai Vasilievich plunged into adult life, most of which were far outside Vasilevka, the writer has never forgotten their native lands, of his mother and sisters. My mother was constantly writing letters to her son, she sent him numerous materials on folk customs, way of life and beliefs. All this Nikolai Gogol used in his works. Home writer came to rest from the bustle of the capital, where he also spent a lot of time for her works.
Home, Vasilevka and all the surrounding hamlets and villages and their inhabitants were the prototypes of many of the heroes of Gogol's works.For example, the writer's sister Olga Vasilievna was told, as in the summer, when Nikolai Vasilievich came to his parents, he and his sister Olga often went into the forest, which was called Yavorivna. In this forest was apiary family Hogla-Yanovsky. The apiary Nicholas loved to communicate with the beekeeper. Therefore, there is the assumption that it is through communication with his beekeeper's most famous work of Nikolai Gogol's "Evenings on a farm near Dykanka" attributed this to fictional character, as a beekeeper Rydyu Panko.
Nikolai Gogol was in Vasilevka all summer of 1832; he visited her in 1835 and spent three months in the summer of 1848, and in 1850 was here from June to October. May 1851 - this is the period when Nikolai Gogol last visited native Vasilevka. At this time he was actively engaged in the restructuring of the parent's estate. So, basically building it eliminated the mezzanine floor built terrace with double columns, the wing, which stood in the garden, moved to the right side of the front yard. The project of the writer here has built a bell tower and the fence around the Church. Nikolai Vasilievich was personally engaged in the device of the bath and planting trees and flowers in the garden. The living room and other rooms of the house are decorated with drawings of Gogol.
In 1852 after the death of Nikolai Gogol, the estate was divided between his two sisters, Anna refused his inheritance. The territory from the Church to the pond, which was parental home and garden, went to the youngest sister of the writer Olga Vasilievna Gogol-Brand the area behind the pond became the property of Elizabeth V. Gogol-Bykova. Estate Yelizaveta Vasilyevna soon people began to call "Bykowska". A few years later settled nephew N. Gogol Bulls Nikolay Vladimirovich, who married the granddaughter of another world-famous writer Alexander Pushkin Maria Alexandrovna. The young couple settled in Vasilevka in the late nineteenth century, after which there began a new period of renovation.
After the death of the son of Olga V. Gogol-Smut decided to demolish the old home and build a new one. So in 1894 was dismantled and the wing writer. After that, the house and all outbuildings were built over a pond on Bykovsky side. Nowadays this place is a wasteland, which is a favorite place for the people of Gogolevo to celebrate Midsummer. Along with the construction of a new house Olga Vasilievna ordered the graves of his parents and was built behind the Church in 1896, the parish school, which later became the local school. In the same view manor family Goldeneyes-Yanovsky remained until 1943.
Unfortunately, the terrible events of the great Patriotic war have not passed Vasilevka - the village was almost completely destroyed. During their retreat the Germans burned the mansion. Managed to survive only part of the school and church.
In honor of the 150th anniversary since the birth of Nikolai Gogol in 1959 were ordered the grave of his parents, pond, built a new rural two-storey school, and in place of the house installed a commemorative obelisk. But the Vasilevka also suffered irreparable damage - destroyed Church of the Nativity of the virgin, which was just opposite the school.
In 1972-1978, began active design and survey and research work on the restoration of the estate of Goldeneyes-Yanovsky.This work was headed by the chief architect of Poltava, the faculty of architecture and design Poltava Institute of civil engineering Lev Semenovich Weingart, who later became the first Director of the Museum-estate of Nikolai Gogol.
Restoration work was carried out for a very long time, and only in 1984 was held the Grand opening of the Museum-estate of Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol, dedicated to the 175th anniversary of the birthday of the Great writer. On the same day near the house-Museum was a monument to Gogol.
Museum-estate of Nikolai Vasilievich Gogolwas restored to the letters and memoirs of contemporaries, plans, drawings and old photographs of Nikolai Gogol.
Today, the Museum-estate of Nikolai Gogol is a beautiful complex of reconstructed (the tomb of the parents, Gogol rate) and reproduced (wing, house, Park and garden with a small architectural forms) objects, and other landscape and natural sites, which are placed on an area of 40 hectares. In the halls of the house-Museum and in the wing housing the collection, which has 7,000 exhibits, which include visual, written, photo and video materials, decorative and household items, exhibits. All of the materials of the Museum tell about the life, work and writings of Nikolai Gogol, and about the era in which the writer lived.
On the territory of the Museum-estate of Nikolai Gogol grow two birches, which is called mother and father. Next to these birch trees from the same root grow five birch trunks. Interesting there is such a coincidence that the parents of Nikolai Gogol had twelve children, six girls and six boys, but was able to survive only five - four girls and one boy. Locals say that there is a legend that if you sit down on the stone, which is located near the grotto, and to think of at this moment desire, soon it will come true.