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FROM THE CYCLE EXCURSIONS IN KIEV
THE ARTICLE: "KIEV FORTRESS"

Kiev, or New Castle Fortress is one of the most important historical and architectural monuments of the 18th century that remained in Kiev. Most of the buildings are located on the territory of Kiev Main Military Clinical Hospital.

The museum located in a fortress today is the only Ukrainian monument of that period fortification, and at the same time - the world's largest stone-earthen fortress. At least with those that managed to survive to the present day. All towers, earthworks and caponiers are subjects of the tour show, and some of them are museums.

Fortification complex was formed about the 15th century – besides shaft and defense walls of Kyiv, the museum includes Lavra, Arsenal factory and Museum of the Great Patriotic War. In fact, construction of the fortress began in 5-6 centuries., When a castle was erected on Starokyivska Hill. At the very beginning it was just reinforcement of ditches, ramparts and palisades. Later, with the development of the city, the fortress also grew. Strengthening slightly declined after the Mongol invasion, and after the transition in Ukraine under Polish rule at Khorevytsya comes a new fortress (so-called Lithuanian castle). Recent additions have been built during the Russian Empire - from Khreschatyk to Pechersk (the former district was growing quickly). In 1679 the Cossacks by order of Samoilovych all connected the fortifications of Kiev, finally uniting separated areas in Kyiv fortress. Also contribute to the development invested Ivan Mazepa (Pecherska citadel) and Opperman (tied with the citadel Zverinetskaya fortification). Up to the beginning of the 20th century fortress consisted of the fortified citadel and two wings - Vassilkovsky and Hospital, supplemented by towers and barracks.

Now the castle contains a museum under state protection, most of its buildings, however, are under threat of destruction. Mainly because new constructions are held near the fortifications, and some buildings are occupied by factories.

The oldest monument that belongs more to the medieval fortification types - defensive walls and towers around the Upper Lavra, but reinforcement (Vasilkov and Hospital) were built later. Defensive ramparts and barracks at the Pechersk is one of the few incarnations of Russian fortification school, which once occupied a leading position in the world. Lysohirski fortifications, instead, demonstrates features of fortification period of rifled artillery, so we can see that every part of the fortifications are in their own unique and interesting for visitors, making it possible to fully appreciate the art of fortification at every stage of its development.

In addition, the exhibition presents the largest number of military and historical miniatures.

The museum is open from 10:00 to 17:00 (last tour group - 16-30), off - Monday. The entrance ticket costs 14 UAH., Tour - 10 UAH. Sign in territory - free, but here is an overview of museum pieces from the exhibition allowed only in a group (which may consist of one and only guest).

by Ostap Ukrainets

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